A lineage first identified in Brazil with variants of biological significance E484K, N501Y and K417T, described in a recent virological post: here. P.1 lineage is an alias of lineage B.22.214.171.124. As described in Rambaut et al., 2020 when the lineage heirarchy reaches a certain depth (length of 5) lineage names are given an alias to prevent them from becoming infinitely long.
This webpage is generated using publically available sequence data from GISAID, shared by international sequencing efforts.
Table 1 | Summary of P.1 data
|Countries with sequences||48|
|Countries||United States of America 8020, Brazil 3324, Italy 743, Belgium 685, Netherlands 296, Spain 288, Chile 245, France 196, Germany 181, United Kingdom 108, Portugal 100, Switzerland 68, French Guiana 68, Japan 64, Colombia 62, Uruguay 54, Sweden 45, Mexico 36, Luxembourg 28, Ireland 26, Aruba 25, Peru 25, Argentina 21, Denmark 20, Turkey 17, Costa Rica 9, Suriname 8, Ecuador 7, Australia 7, Singapore 5, Poland 5, New Zealand 5, Norway 5, Romania 5, Paraguay 5, South Korea 4, Canada 3, Jordan 3, Slovenia 3, India 2, China 2, Lithuania 1, Faroe Islands 1, Bangladesh 1, Guyane 1, Austria 1, Thailand 1, Curaçao 1|
|Earliest sample date||2020-11-03|
Figure 1 | Cumulative sequence count over time P.1
Bars show the number of new sequences on GISAID over time, binned by epi-week. The line shows the cumulative number of sequences over time.
Figure 2 | Date of earliest_P.1 detected
Schematic map showing the date of the first sequence sample date in each country containing the lineage. Darker countries have earlier first sample dates.
Figure 3 | Map of P.1 sequence counts
Map showing the logged number of sequences of the variant in each country. Countries with more sequences are shown in darker colours.
Figure 4 | Sequence count per country P.1
The number of sequences of the lineage recorded in each country. The height of the bar is the logged number and the numbers above the bar are the raw counts.
Figure 5 | Frequency P.1 in sequences produced since first new variant reported per country
The overall frequency of the lineage, defined as the number of sequences assigned the lineage divided by the total number of sequences from that country in the time since the variant was first sequenced in that country.
Figure 6 | P.1 count per continent
Seven day rolling average of sequence counts per continent. Please note that recent declines may be due to delay in reporting rather than reflecting a change in the underlying virus population.
Figure 7 | Rolling average P.1 frequency per continent
Seven day rolling average of frequency of sequences of the lineage of interest. Frequency is calculated by dividing the number of sequences of the lineage of interest by the total sequences for each continent for each day.
Figure 8 | Map of P.1 local transmission
Colours indicate reports of imported cases (pink) or of local transmission (darker purple). Data is obtained from news reports and similar sources and is manually maintained.
Figure 9 | Air traffic by destination P.1
The number of ticketed origin-to-destination journeys from Manaus, Brazil to countries outside Brazil during October 2020.
Colours indicate numbers of published genomes of P.1 deposited on GISAID. Grey bars indicate countries that have reported the presence of the variant but have not yet published P.1 sequences on GISAID. White bars indicate countries with no reports of P.1.
Flight data come from the International Air Transportation Association that capture anonymized, passenger-level flight itinerary data, comprising both commercial flights and scheduled charter flights. These data account for ~90% of global air travel volumes, with the remaining volumes modelled using market intelligence. We report data from destinations including >5,000 passengers.
Note that flight data reflects final-destination on a booked journey, we cannot account for instances where two separate tickets were purchased.
Country count: 37
|Country||Earliest sequence||Number of variant sequences||Total sequences since first variant sequence|
|United States Of America||2021-01-09||8020||297827|
Data source and processing
The data on this page is recent as of 2021-05-15, 23:02 GMT. All SARS-CoV-2 sequences were downloaded from GISAID and genomes were de-duplicated based on GISAID sequence name – note that the publically available metadata may not fully allow us to de-duplicate by patient. Full data processing pipeline found here. The sequences were then assigned lineages with pangolin 2.4.2, pangoLEARN version 2021-05-12.
Pangolin assigns P.1 to sequences with at least 10 of the 17 defining P.1 SNPs – defined here.
Caveat: Most locations outside the original focus have not reported sustained transmission and many cases have known travel links to the focal location. Increasing numbers of international cases is currently likely due to increased surveillance and vigilance.
Created by: Áine O'Toole and Verity Hill, Rambaut Group, University of Edinburgh. Flight volume data from Kamran Khan, Isaac Bogoch, Alexander Watts, Oliver Pybus, Moritz Kraemer. Sequences sourced from GISAID, full acknowledgements table here.
We have a pre-print up on virological here describing this web tracker.